Momentous Monday: Tricky Questions

Here are five tricky questions to test how much you know about what you think you know.

  1. When did the United States become its own country?

If you’re an American, you probably wanted to say July 4, 1776, didn’t you? You could, but you’d be wrong. We had to win the war that was started when we declared independence, and that took a while.

The U.S.A. wasn’t officially that until March 4, 1789, when the Constitution went into effect — and George Washington became the first President. Why we don’t celebrate this as the birth of our nation is beyond me, but March 4 was the date of the presidential inauguration right up until 1933, when it was moved to its current January 20 date by Constitutional Amendment — number 20, to be exact, or XX if you prefer.

  1. How much gravity, in g, do astronauts on the ISS experience?

You’re probably thinking Zero, aren’t you? Nope. The gravity up there is a net downward force — as in toward the center of the Earth — of 0.89g, or almost what you’d experience on the surface of the Earth itself.

“But they’re floating around up there!” you may say.

Yes, they are, sort of, but they’re not really floating. They’re falling in the same way that you fall when you’re in a rollercoaster or other thrill ride that makes a sudden and very steep drop. It feels like you’re floating, but that’s because your downward acceleration (which makes you feel like you’re pushing up into the rollercoaster seat) counteracts the downward pull of gravity.

Drop faster than 1g, and you’ll rise out of your seat — but you’re still in Earth’s gravity.

  1. When there’s a Full Moon in the sky, how much of the Moon can we actually see?

Did you say “All of it?” Nice answer, but wrong. We’re only seeing half of it, of course, and that’s the near side. We never see the far side, but we actually do see more than just half of the Moon over time.

In fact, over time we can see up to 60% of the Moon’s surface thanks to libration, which is a tilt and wobble in the Moon itself. It wobbles along its East-West axis stopping during perigee and apogee,

The former is when the Moon is closest to Earth during its orbit, and the latter is when its at its farthest. Between each of these points, the Moon turns a bit farther, about 8 degrees  in either direction, showing a bit of its backside. Cheeky!

Likewise, the Moon “nods” north and south. This happens for the same reason that the Earth has season — the Moon’s orbital plane is tilted about 5 degrees relative to Earth’s. Also, the Moon’s equator is tilted 1.5 degrees relative to the plane of the ecliptic, which was set as the plane which contains both the Sun and the Earth’s orbit, meaning that the Earth is inclined zero degrees to the plane.

These lunar tilts add up to 6.5 degrees, though, which is exactly how much of its far side we can see to the north and south depending on where the Moon is in its orbital period.

So add it all up — 2 x 8 degrees plus 2 x 6.5 degrees, or 16 plus 13 degrees, and we get 29 degrees, more or less. Add that to the 180 we already see to get 209, divide by 360, and that’s about 58% of the surface we can see over time, give or take.

  1. So how much of the Moon do we see when the phase is a Half Moon?

You’re probably thinking “Half of the half we see, so one quarter.” Well, that’s the part we can see that’s lit — but have you ever realized that you can still see the whole near side of the Moon no matter what the phase, even if it’s a New Moon?

This is because the Earth itself has an albedo of 30 to 35%, varying due to cloud cover. This number indicates how much of the Sun’s light it reflects.

Under most circumstances, there’s enough light coming off of the Earth to illuminate the dark parts of the Moon at least enough so that they appear as a dark shadow against the night sky, and it’s much more obvious with a very starry background because there will be a “hole” in the stars where the rest of the Moon is.

If you live anywhere near the eastern shore of the Pacific, this effect is particularly pronounced, since there will be a good amount of sunlight reflecting off of the water whether it’s under cloud cover or not.

The Moon’s albedo is 12%, but it’s getting hit by a lot of light by the Sun — and this is why you can see the entire near side of a New Moon during the day. Sure, it’s fairly pale, but it’s there. Just look up in the sky away from the Sun and ta-da!

  1. One last question for the Americans: What is the official language of the United States?

Yep. Contrary to what way too many people think, the official language of the United States is not English. In fact, it’s… nothing. We as a country do not have an official language. Some states have tried to have official languages, while a number do not.

Not counting territories, we have 19 states with no official language, although some languages do have special status, like Spanish in New Mexico and French in Louisiana. the District of Columbia provides for equal access to all whether they speak English or not.

Twenty states have declared for English only, with two states (Arizona and Massachusetts) subsequently passing new English-only laws after previous laws were declared unconstitutional. My home state, California, passed an English-only initiative in 1986, when the state was much more conservative. However, for all practical purposes this isn’t really enforced, at least not in any government agency.

There are three states that have English as an official language in addition to others: Hawaii, with Hawaiian; Alaska, with over 20 indigenous languages recognized; and South Dakota, with English and Sioux. Okay, I’ll include Puerto Rico, with English and Spanish.

By the way, when the Colonies declared their independence from England, they also considered a full linguistic split as well, and there were many proponents of making Hebrew the official language of the United States.

How did you do, and how many tricky questions or errors in “common knowledge” do you know? Let me know in the comments!

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.